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The northeastern dingoes share ancestry with European dogs, represented by the In , Nonostante il nome, il Dingo australiano è originario dell'Asia! Dingo / ˈdɪŋ.ɡoʊ / Nombre cientifico Canis Lupus Dingo: Perro salvaje Australiano, cuyo origen es rastreado a una especie de lobo gris que hace. p. Dime Piece Asian Mei-Yu Analtraining mit der BBC. 20 Min2,4M Sichten -. p. Sinstar Dickband Redbone vs Dingo. 15 Min3,6M Sichten -. p. Wild dogs hunt feral livestock such as goats and American porn.com, as well as native prey and introduced animals. Dingoes, dingo Sex girl perfect, and feral dogs usually attack from the rear as they pursue their prey. Today, the main threat to the Dingo comes from their contact with the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris. The variants include "tin-go" [30] for a bitch, "din-go" for a dog, and Kimmy granger news for a big dog. How to stretch pussy lips the Where is your wife xxx edition of Mammal Species of the World published inthe mammalogist W. This same tactic is used by wolves, African wild dogsand hyenas. The utility of our estimates depends most critically on the accuracy of our assumptions about the founding time Xxx video porn Australian dingoes. Retrieved 14 May Order Dingo asian the Myaischepervers Trust for Zoological Nomenclature.

We hypothesize that isolation of Neolithic dogs from wolves in Southeast Asia was a key step accelerating their phenotypic transformation, enhancing their value in trade and as cargo, and enabling them to rapidly expand and replace more primitive dogs to the West.

Our findings also suggest that dingoes could have arrived in Australia directly from Taiwan, independently of later dispersals of dogs through Thailand to Island Southeast Asia.

Tracking Holocene movements of domesticated plants and animals with molecular genetic markers has provided important insights into prehistoric human migrations Dobney and Larson ; Zeder et al.

Dogs, the first domesticated animal, were associated with Neolithic humans on most continents, making them an especially valuable proxy for understanding Holocene human movements Clutton-Brock ; Leonard et al.

However, the low resolution of mitochondrial DNA mtDNA markers over recent historical timescales has presented a challenge in mid- to late-Holocene phylogenetic studies.

Moreover, inconsistent geographic representation of archeological faunal remains, which are needed along with DNA evidence to reconstruct late-Pleistocene and early-Holocene migrations Zeder et al.

Establishing the origins of the first dogs has been a particularly elusive task. On the one hand, the earliest archeological evidence of dogs, dating more than 11, years before present BP , is distributed throughout Europe and the Middle East, possibly as far east as Kamchatka e.

On the other hand, worldwide analyses of mtDNA indicate that modern dog matrilines reflect a subset of those found today in Southeast Asia Savolainen et al.

The lack of supporting archeological evidence has been explained by the paucity of archeological sites and historically low interest in and attention to faunal remains in Asia Savolainen et al.

If, however, dogs were absent from Southeast Asia until the Neolithic, the most parsimonious hypothesis reconciling archeological and mtDNA observations would be that early dogs entered Southeast Asia with pre-Neolithic peoples from the west or north, then later expanded outward 8—5 Ka swamping or replacing more primitive dog populations.

First, Neolithic expansion of dogs from Southeast Asia 8—5 Ka would be in line with linguistic, cultural, archeological, and human genetic evidence of a westward expansion of Neolithic humans from the Yangtzee and Yellow River basins Diamond and Bellwood , the precursor to the slightly later migrations of Austronesian-speaking farmers from this same region, which were responsible for spreading dogs to Island Southeast Asia and Oceana Savolainen et al.

Archeological and ancient DNA evidence suggesting that late-Paleolithic dogs were replaced by Neolithic immigrants in regions as disparate as Japan, the Middle East, and North America also support this hypothesis Olsen ; Tanabe ; Tchernov and Valla ; Brown et al.

However, the maternally inherited mtDNA marker used for most phylogeographic studies of the dog mutates too slowly to distinguish these timeframes Savolainen et al.

For example, the mtDNA-based estimate of dingo arrival in Australia was estimated at 4. Thus, a more rapidly mutating, phylogenetically tractable marker on clonally inherited DNA is needed to provide greater precision.

For human genetic studies, the approach of combining rapidly mutating single tandem repeats STRs with slower mutating single-nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs on the nonrecombining region of the Y chromosome has provided a high-resolution alternative and complement to mtDNA that is better suited to resolving Holocene time scales Heyer et al.

These calibrated mutation rates have, in turn, enabled inferences about human movements as recently as 2, years.

For example, Henn et al. Although studies of dogs and other canids have used Y chromosomes to a limited extent e.

Both dog Y chromosome studies addressed phylogeography in Eurasia but reached fundamentally different conclusions about the divergence time between eastern and western dogs based on differing and poorly tested assumptions about mutation rates of the markers used in the two studies.

In particular, one study using SNPs substitutions from 14, base pairs [bp] of dog Y chromosomes found European and Southeast Asian dogs to reflect primarily different haplogroups but lacked resolution to age the diagnostic European mutation Ding et al.

Knowing mutation rates for these markers, especially the STRs, is necessary to the estimation of divergence times.

Mutation rates have been estimated for a number of autosomal dog STRs based on direct counts of repeat changes accumulating in multigenerational pedigrees or father—son pairs Irion et al.

Moreover, in humans, Y chromosome STRs have similar mutation rates to their autosomal counterparts Heyer et al. However, the rates of mutation as inferred from phylogenetic data i.

For this reason, it is important to calibrate EMRs to populations of known age Forster et al. The objectives of this study were to combine the dog Y chromosome SNPs and STRs to resolve phylogenetic relationships among patrilines, to estimate EMRs of the STRs through calibration of a large sample of Australian dingoes Canis lupus dingo in conjunction with Bali and other Southeast Asian village dogs, and to revisit hypotheses about the timing of divergence between modern European and Southeast Asian dogs.

Dingoes are ideal for calibration of EMRs as they reflect a known 5,—3, years of isolation and evolution from as few as 2—4 founders based on archeological and biogeographic evidence and consistent maternal genetic evidence Corbett ; Savolainen et al.

We observed 15 D loop haplotypes in 94 dingoes 89 males and 5 females , of which nine were novel not previously described; table 1. Ignoring indels, this was equivalent to 10 distinct bp haplotypes, of which four were novel.

Previously described dingo haplotypes Savolainen et al. The four novel haplotypes were found in 1—2 individuals and differed by 1—2 substitutions from A29, which was found in 36 individuals.

Otherwise, two individuals contained haplotypes that were previously found in nondingo dogs, including A9, which probably evolved independently in dingoes Savolainen et al.

Thus, only one of the 94 dingoes used in this study carried a haplotype likely to have originated from a domestic dog A Adding the haplotypes in this study to previously published ones yielded a total of dingo sequences, which continue to exhibit a star-like genealogical structure consistent with the expansion of dingoes from as few as a single female founder fig.

Establishing the relationships among the 29 SNP markers enabled us to clarify the phylogenetic relationships among the more rapidly mutating STRs and to link these results to those from the previous analysis of STRs and a subset of these SNPs Brown et al.

For example, two cases were evident where STR haplotypes were identical in state but not by descent supplementary fig.

S1 , Supplementary Material online. Lastly, STR haplotype 0m corresponded to adjacent but internal positions on the network H6 in Bali and H3 in Iran , suggesting either an uncharacteristic degree of STR conservatism or, more likely, an accumulation of STR back-mutations.

The SNP—STR haplotype network composed of all Y chromosomes indicated substantial phylogenetic structure, most notably, distinctive clustering of dingo haplotypes and, to some extent, Bali dog haplotypes fig.

A number of nondingo haplotypes also were shared across populations. MJ networks of Y chromosome haplotypes composed of 29 SNPs and 5 STRs A among 85 haplotypes in breed dogs, village dogs, and dingoes, B 74 haplotypes in Southeast Asian village dogs and Australian dingoes, and C haplogroup composition of geographically mapped samples.

Network circle size corresponds approximately to sample size, and connection lengths are proportional to numbers of mutations.

Dashed ellipses indicate subclades used in the Bali analysis, and the dashed polygon indicates haplogroup H1, which was excluded from the Bayesian analysis of splitting times among Australasian populations.

C Vertical bars indicate proportions of dog samples composed of putative indigenous haplotypes white versus putative western haplotypes H1 black ; pie charts reflect composition of indigenous SNP haplotypes with respect to the color-coded network to the left.

In fact, all the H1 haplotypes in the village dogs that had also been sampled in breed dogs were from European and American, but not Asian, breeds Brown et al.

The lower proportions on Bali are consistent with the ban on importation of dogs there established in Irion et al.

Likewise, although dog—dingo interbreeding is known to be common in Southeastern Australia Elledge et al. The phylogenetic distinctions among populations were evident when breed dogs were excluded from the network as was the exceptional nature of haplogroup H1 with respect to haplotype sharing among these populations fig.

Identification of ancestral nodes of haplotype clusters corresponding to dingoes H60 haplogroup and Bali dogs a portion of H3 was uncertain due to homoplasy among STR types.

This was especially problematic in the Bali sample because of the unknown degree of isolation of that population and the close association of haplotypes with those of other Southeast Asian populations, which suggested the possibility that the cluster reflected multiple founding events.

Therefore, we calculated estimates that corresponded to a range of plausible ancestral nodes in both populations and, additionally, assumed both one and two founders for the H3 haplotype cluster of the Bali sample.

The estimates were relatively consistent regardless of which node was assumed ancestral but, not surprisingly, differed somewhat for the Bali population depending on whether one or two founders were assumed tables 2 and 3.

The Bali estimates assuming a single founder were nearly identical to the dingo-based estimates. Although average squared difference ASD; Goldstein et al.

Initial runs in Batwing Wilson et al. However, the joint posterior distribution was relatively independent of prior distributions for other parameters.

Therefore, using the dingo data set, we conducted runs under a range of mutation rate priors and in models with and without an exponential growth phase to determine which mutation rate posteriors largely determined by the priors produced TMRCA estimates within the credible range.

Only the runs with mutation rate estimates at least as high as the moment-based estimates above produced credible estimates of TMRCA, and this was true for both demographic models which produced similar estimates of TMRCA for all prior sets; fig.

In the models with exponential growth, the estimates of kappa the natural logarithm of the current-to-ancestral population size approached zero in all runs, indicating that the more complex demographic model was not justified over the simpler constant-population size model.

Therefore, we considered only the constant population size model subsequently. Gray box in A indicates the credible range of TMRCA corresponding to 3, years of 4-year generations generations to 5, years of 2-year generations 2, generations ; dashed gray arrows indicate posterior estimates corresponding to five sets of mutation priors means indicated by filled triangles on axis ; and the TMRCA is shown on a logarithmic scale.

The high dependence of the posterior unscaled mutation rate estimates on mutation rate priors was coupled with compensatory estimates of ancestral population size N ; not shown , such that estimates of scaled mutation rates i.

For example, runs with mutation priors corresponding to expectations ranging from 0. N ote. As with the dingo data, runs with the Bali data did not produce substantial estimates of population growth data not presented or qualitatively affect other parameter estimates.

Runs using only the Bali dog Y chromosomes that comprised haplogroup H3 but excluding 0l, which was distantly related; supplementary fig.

S1 , Supplementary Material online produced mutation rate estimates nearly identical to those for dingoes. Specifically, runs with mutation priors corresponding to expectations ranging from 0.

These estimates of mutation rate in dingo and Bali dog populations were higher than the corresponding moment-based estimates above.

The locus-specific median estimates allowed calculation of SEs incorporating both sampling error and variance among loci and ranged between 0.

However, allowing loci to vary independently resulted in a complex joint posterior distribution, preventing estimation of highest posterior density HPD intervals for a general STR EMR.

Therefore, using the dingo H60 data set, we also conducted scaled runs constraining loci to share the same mutation rate.

Multiple runs using different priors produced stable posteriors. The posterior estimate of median mutation rate was lower in these runs i.

The corresponding average across loci mutation rate estimates were 2. Although we did not explicitly model gene flow, these results are consistent with a period of connectivity of Bali to other Southeast Asian dog populations postdating its establishment.

Branching order is tentative due to overlapping HPDs, but the pattern of haplotype clustering fig. Haplogroup H1 was excluded from this analysis.

Chronology was calibrated to the dingo population assuming 3, year upper gray nodes and 5, year lower gray nodes splitting times from other Southeast Asian dogs.

These calibrations correspond, respectively, to average yearly mutation rates of 4. Although it is tempting to infer a geographic pattern of migration from the branching order reflected in figure 4 , the low sample size in some of these populations and consequent overlapping HPDs warrant cautious interpretation.

Nevertheless, the close phylogenetic clustering of haplotypes from Thailand, Brunei, Bali, and the Philippines suggests these populations originated from the same source, consistent with a single migration event, whereas the dingoes, NGSDs, and dogs from Taiwan appear sufficiently distinct from these to reflect a distinct migration event fig.

However, the phylogenetic proximity of dingo and NGSD H60 haplotypes with Taiwanese dog H5 haplotypes suggests the possibility that the dogs of Oceana arose directly from Taiwan.

We transformed yearly mutation rate estimates to per-generation mutation rate estimates assuming 2- and 4-year generation times to enable direct comparison to studies of human Y chromosome STR mutation rates.

All moment-based estimates, including those assuming 2 or 4 year generations or minimum versus maximum time since founding, fell within 1 SE of the EMR for human Y STRs inferred from multiple methods fig.

However, the Bayesian estimates based on TMRCA in both dingoes and Bali dogs were somewhat higher, albeit with large variability among locus estimates.

Dog STR mutation rates assume A 4-year generations and 3, and 3,year isolation times for dingo and Bali dog populations, respectively, or B 2-year generations and 5, and 4,year isolation times for dingo and Bali dog populations, respectively.

The apparent origins of most modern dog matrilines from Southeast Asia has been interpreted as evidence that dogs were first domesticated in this region Savolainen et al.

However, the lack of archeological evidence of dogs in Southeast Asia until some 5,—7, years later than in central and western Eurasia suggests either that the single genealogical history reflected in mtDNA could be misleading e.

Previous efforts to investigate these hypotheses using independent patrilineally inherited markers have reached discrepant conclusions, owing in part to poorly resolved genealogies and unknown mutation rates Brown et al.

We also used other insular dog populations of Island and Mainland Southeast Asia to assist in this task and to additionally explore implications for our understanding of the Austronesian expansions.

Most approaches produced estimates similar to those for humans on a per-generation basis. The larger Bayesian analysis using the entire Southeast Asian and Australian data set was more in line with moment estimated mutation rates.

Moreover, these mutation rates, as calibrated to the dingo split times, were consistent with other data, for example, implying a 4,—6, BP split time between Taiwanese and other Australasian dog populations, which coincided well with the time dogs were first noted via archeological remains on Taiwan and immediately preceding evidence on other islands of Southeast Asia reviewed by Larson et al.

Regarding the use of these findings for the temporal interpretation of other studies using Y chromosome markers, the most pertinent consideration is not the absolute rate of STR or SNP mutation as measured from a direct accounting of mutations along a pedigree but rather the realized rate as manifested in genealogical reconstructions reflecting the evolutionary time frame of interest.

One problem with assuming a single rate for all applications is that the degree of state change per unit time is time scale dependent.

Nevertheless, the relative measures of mutation rates among markers or species on one scale provide useful predictors of their relative rates on other time scales Shi et al.

In our study, we found that EMRs of Y chromosome STRs standardized to generation time were similar in dogs and humans, which was expected based on previous estimates of pedigree mutation rates.

Although mutation rates of tetranucleotide STRs can be up to an order of magnitude higher in dogs 0. The utility of our estimates depends most critically on the accuracy of our assumptions about the founding time for Australian dingoes.

That left the Lapita or the hunter-gatherer Toalean people as the main contenders. However, archaeological evidence from across Australia and Southeast Asia seems to eliminate the Lapita: There is no evidence of Lapita pottery in Australia, let alone the pigs and chickens the people brought with them wherever they traveled.

That left the Toalean people. Here, the archaeological data bolster the case: Similarities in rock art between Sulawesi and Borneo indicate a close connection between the people.

By Jeffrey Brainard Oct. By Jocelyn Kaiser Sep. By Rebekah Tuchscherer Sep. All rights Reserved. Rock painting of a dingo and an ancestral figure from the Laura region in Queensland, Australia.

An Australian dingo. However, territory is known to be shared when Dingoes form packs for hunting. Dingoes rarely bark.

They tend to howl, particularly at night in an effort to attract pack members or to ward off intruders. Other forms of communication include scent-rubbing, defecating and urinating on objects such as grass tussocks to mark territorial boundaries.

Pure Dingoes will breed once a year between March and June. The gestation period is approximately nine weeks similar to domestic dogs with the resultant litter producing usually between four and six pups.

Dingoes will rear their young in a hollow log, rock shelter, old rabbit warren or wombat burrow and both parents will be involved.

Weaning of the pups occurs at about two months, at which time the pups may be abandoned or can stay with the parents for about a year. Dingo pups are fully grown by seven months of age and adult Dingoes can live for up to ten years.

Most female dingoes become sexually mature by 2 years of age while male dingoes will be sexually mature by the time they are a year old.

Only the most dominant members of an established Dingo pack will breed leaving the other members to help with the feeding of the pups.

Dingoes have been in Australia for approximately 4, years and their ability to quickly adapt to a wide variety of habitats has seen changes in the ecosytems of which they are a part.

While they have been instrumental in keeping down the populations of rabbits, feral pigs and other farming pests, there have been continued attempts to eradicate the Dingo because of its threat to the domestic animals it hunts.

These actions have been largely unsuccessful. Today, the main threat to the Dingo comes from their contact with the domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris.

The push of urban settlement from coastal areas and into outback Australia allows for increased interbreeding between the two.

This most likely will lead to the dilution of the Dingo gene pool and quite possibly to the ultimate extinction of the Dingo subspecies.

Skip to main content Skip to acknowledgement of country Skip to footer A Dingo stands on a rocky surface, appearing alert and concerned as it looks into the distance.

Its ears are pricked upwards and its brow furrowed. When did dingoes first come to Australia? Identification The Dingo, Canis lupus dingo, is a placental mammal which means it gives birth to live young, feeds its young via mammary glands that produce milk and has fur or hair of some form.

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Get our monthly emails for amazing animals, research insights and museum events. Generally speaking, Dingoes can live in a wide range of habitats found on the Australian mainland.

Their preference is woodland and grassland areas that extend to the edge of forests. They are only limited by access to viable water sources.

The introduction of agriculture by early European settlers and the fear of predation of livestock, saw their range reduced. Having been in Australia for over 4, years, Dingoes inhabited many parts of mainland Australia but never became established in Tasmania.

After European colonisation and the growth of pastoralisation, there was a concerted effort to remove Dingoes from farming areas.

As a result, Dingoes are mostly absent from many parts of New South Wales, Victoria, the south-eastern third of South Australia and from the southern-most tip of Western Australia.

Dingoes are regarded as common throughout the remainder of Australia except in the arid eastern half of Western Australia, nearby parts of South Australia and the Northern Territory.

Dingoes are opportunistic carnivores. Mammals form the main part of their diet especially rabbits, kangaroos, wallabies and wombats.

When native species are scarce they are known to hunt domestic animals and farm livestock. This makes them very unpopular with pastoralists.

Failing this, the Dingo will eat reptiles and any food source it can find including insects and birds. Scavenging at night, the Dingo is a solitary hunter but will form larger packs when hunting bigger game.

It is thought that the Dingo contributed to the extinction of mainland Thylacines Tasmanian Tiger by becoming competition for the available food sources.

Dingoes display a clearly defined territory which is rarely left and often defended against other Dingoes. However, territory is known to be shared when Dingoes form packs for hunting.

Dingoes rarely bark. They tend to howl, particularly at night in an effort to attract pack members or to ward off intruders. Other forms of communication include scent-rubbing, defecating and urinating on objects such as grass tussocks to mark territorial boundaries.

Pure Dingoes will breed once a year between March and June. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, no. In Wilson, D.

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Original study was published in Mankind v10 p in Tasmanian Aborigines. Michael, ed. Food and Agriculture in New Guinea. Australian National University E.

Retrieved 22 July Journal of Heredity. Bibcode : PLoSO.. Similarly, Bali-based estimates were transformed to or 2, generations reflecting their 4, to 3, BP founding time.

For samples, the authors thank the late A. Wilton, L. Allen, J. For technical assistance, they thank J. Malvick, T. Kun, and B. Two anonymous reviewers provided helpful suggestions.

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Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract Dogs originated more than 14, BP, but the location s where they first arose is uncertain.

Austronesian expansion , dingo , dog , evolutionary mutation rate , single tandem repeat , Y chromosome. Open in new tab Download slide.

Table 1. Haplotype a. Excluding Indels. Inferred Origin. GenBank No. Open in new tab. Table 2. Ancestral Node Reason Presumed.

Haplotype 5-loc Est. Table 3. Ancestral Node s Reason Presumed. Derived Nodes Presumed. ASD, Avg. Table 4. Because unscaled parameters tend to be less sensitive to prior distributions Wilson et al.

We calculated bounded estimates of the average yearly per-locus mutation rate as follows:. Terra Australis Comprehensive study of mtDNA among Southwest Asian dogs contradicts independent domestication of wolf, but implies dog—wolf hybridization.

Google Scholar Crossref. Search ADS. Narrow genetic basis for the Australian dingo confirmed through analysis of paternal ancestry.

Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history. Phylogenetic distinctiveness of Middle Eastern and Southeast Asian village dog Y chromosomes illuminates dog origins.

Accuracy of molecular dating with the Rho statistic: deviations from coalescent expectations under a range of demographic models.

An evaluation of genetic analyses, skull morphology and visual appearance for assessing dingo purity: implications for dingo conservation.

Google Scholar PubMed. Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa. Estimating Y chromosome specific microsatellite mutation frequencies using deep rooting pedigrees.

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